World History and International Relations

Chronology of Stone and Lead Anchor Stocks of the Ancient World

The article deals with the problem of typology and chronology of ancient wooden anchors with stone and lead stocks. The author notes the lack of elaboration of anchor chronology by previous researchers. Due to the fact that there are new findings, it is possible to extend previous ideas significantly. The chronology of the main types of anchor stocks, as well as their variants (subtypes) is substantiated.

On the Possibility and Prospects of Deciphering Monograms on the Anonymous Obols of the Bosporus Coinage

It is not for the first century that the study of numismatics of ancient Bosporus is continued. The result has been the description of many kinds of coins of this coinage. In their classification, scientists paid attention to both the image and the legend, including those ciphered in monograms. The subject of this study was the ligatures from anonymous obols of Bosporus coinage. The fact is that neither they nor their similarities have been deciphered yet. However, in these notations, the names Padr and Itro were recognized.

The Evolution of George H. W. Bush Administration's Egyptian Policy (1989-1992)

The article considers the policy of George H. W. Bush Republican administration towards Egypt. The author analyzes the background, factors of formation, evolution and results of the U.S. Egyptian policy during the period under review.

F. Franco. Prevarication (1943–1945)

The article deals with the foreign policy of Spain in the period of the Second World War. The author analyses the search of a special political way, which allowed Francisco Franco to prevent the participation in the war, retain the power and preserve the relative stability in the country. Special attention is paid to the development of relations between Francoist Spain with Germany, Italy, USA and Great Britain.

The National Afro-American League: At the Dawn of the Black Protest Movement in the USA (1887–1894)

The article is devoted to the analysis of the creation and activities of the National Afro-American League – the first black protest organization established under the leadership of the black journalist Timothy Thomas Fortune. The main goal of this organization was the struggle against the legislative oppression of the African Americans, as well as the achievement of equal human rights and freedoms regardless of the color of skin.

The Eastern Question, the Crimean War and the End of the «Holy Alliance» in Austrian-Russian Relations

The article deals with the desserts in the culinary practice of England of the XVII century, the focus of the author is the collection of confectionery recipes of 1608, «A Closet for Ladies and Gentlewomen» which was repeatedly reprinted. Considering making cotignac, marmalade, paste, the author comes to the conclusion that these dishes reflect fashionable culinary trends of the British XVII century, showed the status of their consumers, and the emergence of a special collection of confectionary recipes showed the specialization of the cooking art.

The Desserts of the English Cuisine of the Seventeenth Century: Cotignac, Marmalade, Paste, Marzipan and Lots of Sugar...

The article deals with the desserts in the culinary practice of England of the XVII century, the focus of the author is the collection of confectionery recipes of 1608, «A Closet for Ladies and Gentlewomen» which was repeatedly reprinted. Considering making cotignac, marmalade, paste, the author comes to the conclusion that these dishes reflect fashionable culinary trends of the British XVII century, showed the status of their consumers, and the emergence of a special collection of confectionary recipes showed the specialization of the cooking art.

Historical Culture of Early English Antiquaries

In the article, based on the material of “A Description of Elizabethan England” by W. Harrison and «Britain» by W. Camden, an attempt to explore ways of reflection of the historical past of the early English Antiquaries, which set the foundation of the «secularization of historiography» and a rational interpretation of historical experience, is made.

Cleopatra – the queen changing masks (Antiquity – Shakespeare – Hollywood)

The article examines the image of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII, formed in European culture. It shows the role of the ancient tradition (Plutarch first of all) in the formation of the main features of this image, the importance of the iconic literary works of W. Shakespeare and B. Shaw for its development, and then its development in the cinema up to the beginning of the 21st century.

Anthony before Cleopatra: Some Remarks about the Political Role of M. Antonius before 41 BC

The article examines the political role of Mark Antony before he became one of the leaders who fought for power in the Roman Republic. It is stressed that he came from a family that did not have any political influence or connections, a family whose members were involved in a number of scandals. Until the death of Caesar Anthony was only the performer of his orders. After the death of Caesar, he became one of the leaders of the Caesarians, but he had no other support than the army.

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