World History and International Relations

Ordeals in Anglo-norman England

The article deals with ordeals («iudicium Dei») and their features after the Conquest compared with those of Anglo-Saxon age and contemporary continental practice. An introduction of the trial by battle, well-known in France, but unknown in England prior to 1066 is given. Meanwhile, common for pre-Conquest ordeal by hot iron was continued to be used with the help of the English Church, which controlled it. In addition it must be kept in mind that there are few real cases of ordeals known from sources, contradictory to the subsequent age of the Plantagenets.

some Early Classical Assemblages from Chersonesos (north-Eastern District)

The analysis of the ceramic assemblages revealed in the North-Eastern district of Chersonesos in 1982 is presented in the article. They are a few rocky cavities of artificial origin and overlying cultural layer. The material is represented by both imported products and local (the Black Sea region) reminiscences of imported samples. Undoubtedly, these findings are interesting for the study of the early ceramic collection of the site and the economic life of its population at the initial stage of the settlement.

The Lisbon Strategy of 2000 Implementation and the Formation of a Unified Model of the European Union’s Social Policy

The European Union’s social policy is the subject of a large number of studies; it is an important area of domestic policy for each EU member state and their citizens. The formation of the EU general social policy passed certain stages in its historical development. The purpose of this study is to identify the problems that arise in the formation of the EU unified social policy in the context of its development.

Religious Discourse in the Early Debates of Penitentiary Reformers in the USA

The article examines the impact of the theological views of the American Protestant denominations representatives on the formation of theoretical and methodological foundations of the American prison systems. The U. S.A. is considered to be the «pioneers» in the realization of prison reforms in the nineteenth century. Actually it was in America that the first progressive penitentiary systems were arranged: Pennsylvanian and Auburn systems. The elements of American prison systems were later borrowed by European and Russian penal reformers.

The Use of Social Maneuvering Tactics of the German Reich Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in the Second Half of the XIX Century

The article analyzes the peculiarities of O. Bismarck’s internal policy in the second half of the XIX century. This policy was called «social maneuvering», as it was expressed in an active search for like-minded people in representatives of various political parties, economists, major Industrialists for the elaboration and implementation of social reforms. By political maneuvering and economic concessions to individual groups of the ruling classes, the «iron Chancellor» had split the opposition more than once, attracting one part of it to his side and isolating the other. O.

The Everyday Life of Women and Children in England in the Second Half of XIX – the Beginning of XX Century in the Paintings of Contemporary Artists

Women and children’s everyday life representation in England in the second half of XIX – the beginning of XX century are considered in the article as historical sources. Representation of clothes and accessories, forms of pastime demonstrated change in the social role of women and the new attitude to the child in English society. The paintings concerned demonstrated not only real, but also the desired situation, fulfilling the social demand of the royal monarchy through the promotion of high moral values which were necessary for the unity of the nation.

The King’s Body Guard of the Yeomen: Foot Ceremonial Guard of Charles II Stuart

The article shows the role and place of the yeomen of the guard institution in the Royal court and armed forces system during the reign of Charles II. Particular attention is drawn to the position of officers of the company at the Royal court.

Struggle for Power Among the English City Elite in the XIV– XV Centuries

In the article, the question of city self-management organization in the XIV–XV century England is considered. On the example of Bristol and York it is found out whether it is possible to speak about democratic principles of the city authorities’ election, who was a part of city elite and how it was formed.

The Tartar-Mongol Invasion and Urban Development in Central Europe

The article discusses the question of the Mongol invasion impact on the Central European countries (Poland, Bohemia and Hungary) urban development in the XIII century. It is concluded that the devastating consequences of the invasion accelerated the acceptation a new model of urban system in the Central European region, which was typologically akin to Western European urbanism.

The Northern Realm of Canute the Great in Historiography

The article analyzes the place of king Canute the Great’s (1016 – 1035 state in foreign and national historiography. Most of the works published today in different languages are considered. Until now, such work has not been published in Russian.