Izvestiya of Saratov University.
ISSN 1819-4907 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1913 (Online)

Всеобщая история и международные отношения

Spain and the Spaniards through the eyes of the Extraordinary British Ambassador Samuel Hoare (1940–1944)

Based on the materials of the memoirs of the participants of the events and the business correspondence of the embassy with the British government, the image of the Spanish people in the representations of the British ambassador to Spain – Samuel Hoare, who held the post from 1940 to 1944, is considered. The Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939 led to a crisis in many spheres of society. The author comes to the conclusion that the conflict within the state has led to a deep cultural split in Spanish society.

Architects of New Masonry in England (1646–1723)

The article is devoted to topical issues of the Masonic movement in England at the turn of the 17th–18th centuries. Particular attention is paid to the development of the New Masonry in England. The author analyzes the most pressing issues of the transformation of the national Masonic organization. The activities and views of the organizers of the New Masonry are considered.

Hannah More on the significance of charity for the rich and the poor

The article examines one of the facets of the industrial revolution process associated with shifts in the social structure of society and changes in behavioral practices. The main attention is focused on the analysis of the views of the writer, philanthropist and teacher H. Morе. In her writings, H. More tried to contribute to strengthening social stability in society by educating “true ladies”, on the one hand, and educating obedient poor, on the other hand. 

Giovanni Aguto – condottiere in the service of the Italian states

The article discussesthemilitary career ofthe Englishman Giovanni Aguto, amercenary captain who servedthe Italian city-states of Italy and the Papal States for a long time. Based on the material of the Florentine chronicles the brothers Giovanni and Matteo Vilanni, Marchione Stefani, information reported by anonymous authors, the path from an ordinary mercenary to a famous condottiere and honorary citizen of Florence is shown.

London and the towns of Continental Europe in the first period of the Hundred Years’ War

The article examines the relations between London and the cities of Continental Europe in the first period of the Hundred Years’ War. It is shown that the beginning of the conflict for the citizens of London was associated with the need to strengthen the security of the city, supply armed detachments, subsidize the crown. London maintained contacts with the cities of Continental Europe, primarily Flanders, “English Gascony” and Normandy.

Global warming: Russia’s approaches and the West’s reaction

The article is devoted to the study of the evolution of the national climate policy from the moment of its emergence in the USSR in the 1960s and 1970s until the end of the active phase of cooperation between Moscow and Western countries in this area at the end of 2021. The main stages of climate policy,factors of evolution and impact onthe Russian economy are considered. It is concludedthatthe cooperation ofthe Russian Federation with Western countries on the issue of global warming was built on a solid foundation, which can become the basis for future dialogue.

Thomas Wharton project and the problem of Anglo-Scottish border government in 1540s

This article analyses the draft reorganization of the administration of the border counties between England and Scotland, which was submitted to the monarch by Thomas Wharton. Thomas Wharton, a nobleman from Westmorland, had long held various posts in the frontier administration and was considered one of the most experienced and loyal nobles of the frontier. In his project, Wharton proposed a precise fixation of the rules of frontier administration and a concentration of strategically important land holdings and frontier strongholds in the monarch’s hands.

Urban finance and municipal government in English Tudor cities (using the example of Worcester)

One of the important problems for the English cities of the Tudor era was the managementt of finances. The main income was from real estate, which was supplemented by duties and fines. Fees of city officials, utilities, and hospitality accounted for three-quarters of all Worcester’s urban spending. The main problem was inflation and relatively stable income from urban property, which forced municipal authorities to look for new ways to solve financial problems.

Charles VI – rex inutilis? (on the issue of the crisis of royal power in France at the beginning of the 15th century)

This article is devoted to the study of the features of the crisis of royal power in France at the beginning of the 15th century. He was provoked by the mental illness of King Charles VI, since in France there was no practice of transferring power in the event of the incapacity of the king to his sons. The situation was complicated by the fact that the heirs had not yet reached the age of majority. This circumstance caused a split among the relatives into two groups: supporters and opponents of the removal of the king from the throne.

Slovak cities at the end of the XIV – first half of the XV century. The specifics of the situation and the reasons for the heyday

Slovak cities at the end of the XIV- first half of the XV century were actively developing and getting richer. Their situation was caused by a number of complex interrelated reasons. An important role here was played by international trade with the Czech Kingdom, the Polish Kingdom and other countries, mining and the support of the king in the struggle for city rights. At the same time, the kings did not stop exploiting the cities and sought benefits for themselves in supporting the communal struggle. German immigrants had an ambiguous influence on urban life.