Izvestiya of Saratov University.
ISSN 1819-4907 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1913 (Online)

Всеобщая история и международные отношения

The problem of the relationship between the government and Shiite Ulama in Iraq under Saddam Hussein (1970–1980s)

The article attempts to analyze the specifics of the position of the Shiite clergy in Iraq, associated with the traditional Islamic worldview of Shiites, who traditionally occupied a subordinate position in the Sunni political hierarchy. The article focuses on the period of the formation and strengthening of Saddam Hussein’s sole power, when he took the initiative to appease Shiites and Ulama, combining the policy of “carrot and stick”, considering Shiites as a potential threat to his secular power.

European integration as a factor in the process of the Montenegrin state-building

The article deals with the peculiarities of the development of the Montenegrin state-building and Montenegro’s prospects for the European integration after the referendum in 2006. In the wake of the demise of the SFRY and the occurrence of new sovereign states, the Western Balkans became a sphere of interest to the European Union. The author concludes that the European integration and the EU accession process commenced to turn into a major foreign policy goal.

The structure of the Central Treaty Organization and its comparison with other military-political blocs

Created in 1955, the military-political bloc in the Near and Middle East, called the Central Treaty Organization (SENTO), had a pronounced pro-Western and anti-Soviet character. This article examines the organizational structure of the bloc, other regional military-political organizations created by Western countries in the 40s and 50s of the XX century.

Russian theme in the perception of H. Walpol

The problem of intercultural dialogue and the formation of the image of the “other” in a certain cultural tradition is being actively developed in modern historiography at different levels. When writing this article, the level of personal perception by the representative of the English Enlightenment of the carriers of the Russian cultural tradition was chosen. Horace Walpole gained fame in various areas of cultural life. The article analyzes Walpole’s perception of the Russian theme, examines how in this case the personal corresponds to the national tradition.

The cultural and historical role of Czech book printing in the XVI–early XVII centuries

The article discusses the development of book printing in the Czech in the 16th – early 17th centuries, two periods in the development of Czech book printing are distinguished: 1501–1547 and after the events of 1547 until the Battle of White Mountain. The author reveals the changes that have taken place in the working conditions of printing houses, the attitude of the royal authorities to book printing, the repertoire of Czech printed books, the number of published products. 

Varangians and Rus: Peculiarities of military confrontation and interaction (VI–XIV centuries)

The article is devoted to the study of medieval Scandinavian and domestic narrative sources for information about the peculiarities of the military confrontation and interaction between the Varangians and Ancient Rus.

Modern British Historiography about knightly armour of the Heinrich VIII’ age

The article discusses the development of the English arms and armour during the reign of Henry VIII. The research was done by the British scientists.

The European Parliament: from the Direct Universal Suffrage to the Draft Treaty Establishing the European Union

The article discusses the process of the European Parliament’s empowerment and strengthening its role in the system of the European institutions. Introducing of direct universal suffrage to the European Parliament gave the strongest impetus to this process, guaranteeing its transformation into real democratic institution. The key role in the process of the Parliament’s strengthening played its member – Altiero Spinelli who drafted the Treaty establishing the European Union in 1984.

The Creation of the Image of the Enemy in Propaganda of the Countries of Entente at the beginning of the First World War (August–December 1914)

The article focuses on the comparative analysis of the image of the enemy in propaganda of the countries of Entente at the beginning of the First World War. On the basis of the wide range of primary sources the key elements of this image, certain stages in its development, its common and distinguishing features in each of the countries of Entente are examined.

The Balkans in Perception of Russian in Second Half XIX Century: Slavic Unity and Alienation

In the article the issue of a contradictory perception of Balkan Slavs by Russians in the second half of 19th century is considered. On the one hand, the idea of Slavic unity has become stable in Russia which was actively supported by many Russian social and political public figures. On the other hand, when directly contacted Russians and southern Slavs appeared to be alienated and far from mental solidarity.