Izvestiya of Saratov University.
ISSN 1819-4907 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1913 (Online)

Всеобщая история и международные отношения

London and the towns of Continental Europe in the first period of the Hundred Years’ War

The article examines the relations between London and the cities of Continental Europe in the first period of the Hundred Years’ War. It is shown that the beginning of the conflict for the citizens of London was associated with the need to strengthen the security of the city, supply armed detachments, subsidize the crown. London maintained contacts with the cities of Continental Europe, primarily Flanders, “English Gascony” and Normandy.

Global warming: Russia’s approaches and the West’s reaction

The article is devoted to the study of the evolution of the national climate policy from the moment of its emergence in the USSR in the 1960s and 1970s until the end of the active phase of cooperation between Moscow and Western countries in this area at the end of 2021. The main stages of climate policy,factors of evolution and impact onthe Russian economy are considered. It is concludedthatthe cooperation ofthe Russian Federation with Western countries on the issue of global warming was built on a solid foundation, which can become the basis for future dialogue.

Thomas Wharton project and the problem of Anglo-Scottish border government in 1540s

This article analyses the draft reorganization of the administration of the border counties between England and Scotland, which was submitted to the monarch by Thomas Wharton. Thomas Wharton, a nobleman from Westmorland, had long held various posts in the frontier administration and was considered one of the most experienced and loyal nobles of the frontier. In his project, Wharton proposed a precise fixation of the rules of frontier administration and a concentration of strategically important land holdings and frontier strongholds in the monarch’s hands.

Urban finance and municipal government in English Tudor cities (using the example of Worcester)

One of the important problems for the English cities of the Tudor era was the managementt of finances. The main income was from real estate, which was supplemented by duties and fines. Fees of city officials, utilities, and hospitality accounted for three-quarters of all Worcester’s urban spending. The main problem was inflation and relatively stable income from urban property, which forced municipal authorities to look for new ways to solve financial problems.

Charles VI – rex inutilis? (on the issue of the crisis of royal power in France at the beginning of the 15th century)

This article is devoted to the study of the features of the crisis of royal power in France at the beginning of the 15th century. He was provoked by the mental illness of King Charles VI, since in France there was no practice of transferring power in the event of the incapacity of the king to his sons. The situation was complicated by the fact that the heirs had not yet reached the age of majority. This circumstance caused a split among the relatives into two groups: supporters and opponents of the removal of the king from the throne.

Slovak cities at the end of the XIV – first half of the XV century. The specifics of the situation and the reasons for the heyday

Slovak cities at the end of the XIV- first half of the XV century were actively developing and getting richer. Their situation was caused by a number of complex interrelated reasons. An important role here was played by international trade with the Czech Kingdom, the Polish Kingdom and other countries, mining and the support of the king in the struggle for city rights. At the same time, the kings did not stop exploiting the cities and sought benefits for themselves in supporting the communal struggle. German immigrants had an ambiguous influence on urban life.

The “Evil Years” after the death of King Przemysl Ottokar II in Bohemia and the regency of Otto of Brandenburg (1278–1283)

This article covers the political events that took place in the Czech Kingdom in the period from 1278 to 1283, which is known as the “Evil Years” by the national historical science of the Czech Republic. The main topic of this study is the difficult accession to the throne of Wenceslas II, due to his early childhood, who became a victim of political intrigues of both his own courtiers and external forces.

The Position of King’s wife in England in the second half of the 10th century: Queen Aelfthryth

The article focuses on the specifics of king’s wife position in England in the second half of the 10th century on the example of queen Aelfthryth. The research is based on the wide range of historical evidence dating back to Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman times. Aelfthryth was the first among Late Saxon queens, who were crowned and anointed. In the reign of her husband and son she enjoyed great power at court and showed high level of public activity. Aelfthryth was very likely involved in the conspiracy that resulted in the death of her stepson Edward the Saint.

Восточное Средиземноморье и сирийский вопрос во внешнеполитических приоритетах России и США

Аннотация: Исследовательский интерес к Восточному Средиземноморью сохраняется у российских и зарубежных специалистов как ввиду энергетического потенциала региона, так и нерешенных вопросов безопасности. В данной статье рассматривается роль глобальных держав – России и США – в районе Восточного Средиземноморья с точки зрения теории комплекса региональной безопасности. Предпринята попытка определить интересы и приоритеты Москвы и Вашингтона на базе анализа доктринальных установок обоих государств в выделяемом субкомплексе.


В статье рассмотрен внешнеполитический курс России в отношении США в 1991–1996 гг. Показано стремление руководства России достичь уровня стратегического партнерства с Соединенными Штатами в условиях становления новой российской государственности и ослабления международных позиций страны. Сделан вывод о крахе неоправданных надежд и иллюзий Москвы на равноправное сотрудничество с Вашингтоном.