Russian History

Peace treaties and the Problem of International security: the Concept of n. V. Charykov

The article analyzes the views and diplomatic practices of the Russian statesman and scholar N. V. Charykov aimed at solving the problem of creating a system of international security. The formation of Charykov’s views and their development is traced. The most important aspect of his reasoning was consideration of the evolution of the status of peace treaties from ‘eternal’ to ‘relative’ as an important condition for excluding the military way of solving international problems.

Lifetime Portraits of Elizaveta Petrovna as a source of Visual Image of Power and Reign of the Empress

The article considers lifetime portraits of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, painted by artists that worked in Russia in the middle of the 18th century. The author attempted to identify the place of the portrayal genre in representation of the image of the Russian Empress and to show that a portrait as a genre of fine art created in a certain historical period can be a visual source for studying a statesman, and can also supplement existing documentary evidence of an era.

French Rossika in the Middle of the XVIII Century

The article gives an overview of the reports, notes and memoires about Russia written by the French diplomats of the mid-eighteenth century – Marquis de La Chétardie, Count d’Allion, Chevalier d’Éon, Marquis de L’Hôpital, de la Messelière, Favier. «Secret anecdotes about the court of the Empress of All-Russia» by d’Éon are introduced for a scientific consideration. The author notes the peculiarities of each work and at the same time highlights the common features that characterize the views of French diplomats about Russia at the time of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna.

Social Development Strategy in the Soviet Union in the Second Half of the 1950s – the Middle of the 1980s: Stages of Policy-making and Implementation Mechanisms

The article analyzes the policy-making process and implementation mechanisms of the social development strategy of the Soviet Union in 1953–1985. It claims that the main ideological components of the Soviet strategy of social development during the period concerned were fully established after the XXII Congress of the Communist Party, and show which role the institutions of the Communist party played in the policy-making and realization of the Soviet social development strategy.

Visual Images of War in the Works of V. D. Polenov

The article is devoted to the perception of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878 by artists. Analyzing the visual images of war in the works of V. D. Polenov, the author considers the historical and cultural context of their formation and evolution. The article reveals the influence of public opinion, the contradiction of artistic trends, changes in the activity of the press. The author makes an attempt to determine the features of V. D. Polenov’s artistic understanding of the war in the Balkans and the peculiarity of his position among other artists.

Ministry of Finance of the Russian Empire and the First and Second State Dumas: Interaction in the Legislative Sphere

The article is devoted to the relations between the Russian government and the State Duma of the first and second convocation. The process of drafting bills by the Ministry of Finance and their fate in the legislative institution is under consideration.

Church and Political Activities of Rostov Bishop Kirill after the Mongol Invasion

The article examines the activitity of Rostov Bishop Kirill, who headed the church administration in the North-Eastern Russia after the Mongol invasion. The key focus is on the bishop’s policy towards the Golden Horde and his relationship with Alexander Nevsky.

Great Russian Revolution of 1917: from the February Events to the October Overturn

The paper analyses the peculiarities of the political process in post-February revolutionary period which was notable for peculiar political forces arrangement, mythologized public consciousness with its belief in miracles and «setting in the realm of freedom». A new legal system was not developed, the level of public legal awareness and political culture was very low. This was one of the important reasons of Russian sovereignty downfall, the situation in the center and the province confirming this.

World War I and Russia (on Some Lessons of Century-old Events)

Analyzing many events and phenomena that occurred in the leading countries of the world, and, first of all, in Russia, before, in the course of, and after World War I, the author raises and explores a number of problems of that time which are still urgent today and connected with international and domestic security of Russia. Key words: World War I, Russia, imperial nationalism, ambitions of political elite, international relations, overthrow of monarchy, war lessons, consequences of the Versailles Treaty.

State Policy Concerning the Formation and Development of Pedagogical Education in Russia in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century

The article considers the formation of the organizational structure of pedagogical education in Russia in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. It conformed to the system of education, which resulted from the ongoing educational reforms. Special attention is paid to pedagogical institutions established at universities. The role of the Main pedagogical Institute is highlighted. Key words: educational reform of Alexander I, system of pedagogical education, teachers ' Seminary, teacher training institutes.