England

Horace Walpole about the History and Historians

The article is an attempt to analyze the English type of Enlightenment, using the historical views of H. Walpole, an 18th century English intellectual. Horace Walpole was a typical dilettante with wide interests. His views on history and historians, as well as his own historical works demonstrate many peculiarities of the “enlightenmental” approach to history.

Geoffrey Chaucer’s Vicious Aristocracy and Virtuous Workers

Geoffrey Chaucer is a representative of an early English humanistic literature, who in his «The Canterbury tales» managed to show the whole panorama of social life in England of the XIV century. His short stories reflect the epochal change, the formation of new values and a new elite. Chaucer notes the degradation of the secular and spiritual aristocracy, welcomes the enrichment and strengthening of the third estate, connects it with the future of their country, admires workers-peasants that preserved the moral purity of the «corrupt age» of the poet.

Ordeals in Anglo-norman England

The article deals with ordeals («iudicium Dei») and their features after the Conquest compared with those of Anglo-Saxon age and contemporary continental practice. An introduction of the trial by battle, well-known in France, but unknown in England prior to 1066 is given. Meanwhile, common for pre-Conquest ordeal by hot iron was continued to be used with the help of the English Church, which controlled it. In addition it must be kept in mind that there are few real cases of ordeals known from sources, contradictory to the subsequent age of the Plantagenets.

The Northern Realm of Canute the Great in Historiography

The article analyzes the place of king Canute the Great’s (1016 – 1035 state in foreign and national historiography. Most of the works published today in different languages are considered. Until now, such work has not been published in Russian.

John Henry Newman and the Oxford Movement

John Henry Newman is one of the central figures in spiritual life of England of the XIX century. The author considers the development of his religious views up to the conversion to Catholicism in 1845.

English Diplomacy and Diplomats in the Ottoman Empire (the Beginning of Cooperation)

The article deals with the activity of the first English ambassadors in Istanbul. The mission of London’s diplomatic representatives in the Ottoman Empire, at the peak of its prosperity, is described by the author in close connection with the regional interests of the English Levant Company.

Italian Impressions of H. Walpole

The article is devoted to the analysis of events concerning the Italian Tour undertaken by H. Walpole in 1739-1741. Young English aristocrats set off for a Grand Tour to the continent to complete their education. Horace Walpole was a representative of the mid-18th century English culture. He was active in many fields, but the article focuses on the impact of the everyday Italian culture on the views of young Walpole

The Struggle of the «Old» and «New» Patricians in London in the Last Quarter of the 14th Century

The article is devoted to the struggle of the «old» and «new» patricians in London at the end of the 14thcentury. At that time the guild masters, led by the traders of textile goods, opposed the oligarchic merchant regime ofvictualing guilds. In 1381‑1383 the democratic opposition gained the upper hand, and their leader –a draper John Northampton ‑ became mayor of the capital. He organized socio-economic and political reforms in the interests of wide layers of the population.

Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, and his “History of the Rebellion” in the opinion of English intellectuals of the first half of 18th century

The paper represents principal points of view on Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, and his “History of the rebellion and Civil wars in England” (1702-04), expressed by English intellectuals of the first half of the 18th century. It also reconstructs aesthetical and political contexts which brought up these notions. Special attention is paid to Mr. Oldmixon’s revisionist conception on this “History” and its criticism by his opponents. 

Impeachment against Clarendon and its significance for political life of the Age of Restoration

In the 1667 former Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon was impeached by the House of Commons. Having carefully analyzed the text of the blame the author comes to conclusion that the charge was fabricated and pursued two main aims: firstly, it was directed to destroy a reputation of Clarendon and thereby negate his influence in the House of Lords, secondly, it was directed to blamed him for mistakes of the government and so legitimated the current power. It also investigates the genealogy of this charge which succeeded to some other charges in high treason.