Cite this article as:

Petrovsky V. М. Lead in Antique Shipbuilding. Izvestiya of Saratov University. New series. Series History. International Relations, 2019, vol. 19, iss. 4, pp. 459-464. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/1819-4907-2019-19-4-459-464


UDC: 
94(3)
Language: 
Russian

Lead in Antique Shipbuilding

Abstract

The article considers history of lead in the use of antique shipbuilding. The author shows that extension of trade routes in the 6th-5th centuries BC required the creation of a new type of merchant ship that could stay at sea longer and carry more cargo. Trying to solve the problem of creating such a ship, ancient shipbuilders faced a number of technical problems. Among these problems was the protection of the underwater hull from pests. In addition, it was required to pick up material for a number of auxiliary parts and mechanisms – anchors, balancers, pipes, etc. which could not be made of wood. The author concludes that level of development of metallurgy in ancient times was low, lead was the only metal that became widely used in shipbuilding. It became the second most important material of the ancient ship after the woods.

References
  1. Parker A. J. Ancient Shipwrecks of the Mediterranean and the Roman Provinces. BAR International Series 580. Oxford, 1992. Р. 10.
  2. Gale Brown H. A Study of Lead Ingot Cargoes from Ancient Mediterranean Shipwrecks. Texas A&M University. 2011. P. 22.
  3. Ребрик Б. М. У колыбели геологии и горного дела. М. : Недра, 1984. С. 52.
  4. Черных Е. Н. Горное дело и металлургия в древнейшей Болгарии. София : Изд-во БАН Археологический институт, 1978. С. 38.
  5. Голубев О. В., Карабасов Ю. С., Коротченко Н. А., Черноусов П. И. Металлургия и время. Т. 1. Древний мир и раннее средневековье. М. : МИСиС, 2011. С. 99.
  6. Weiss D., Shotyk W. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution // Naturwissenschaften. 1999. Vol. 86.6. Р. 236.
  7. Rosen В., Galili Е. Lead Use on Roman Ships and its Environmental Effects // The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. 2007. Р. 2.
  8. Kapitan G. Ancient anchors – technology and classifi cation // 2nd The International of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration. Athens, 1984. Vol. 13, № 1. Р. 40. 11 Ibid. Р. 41.
  9. Joncheray J. P. The 1974 Еxcavations on the Wreck of Bon Porté (6th century BC) // The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. 1974. Vol. 5, № 88. Р. 22.
  10. Carlson D. N. The Classical Greek Shipwreck at Tektas Burnu, Turkey // American Journal of Archaeology. 2003. Vol. 107. Р. 596.
  11. Joncheray J. P. Op. cit. Р. 107.
  12. Gale Brown H. Op. cit. Р. 31.
  13. Hocker F. Lead Hull Sheathing in Antiquity // 3rd International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity. Athens, 1989. Р. 199.
  14. Бэкман В., Швенк В. Катодная защита от коррозии. М. : Металлургия. 1984. С. 32.
  15. Блаватский В. Д., Петерс Б. Г. Кораблекрушение IV в. начала III в. до н. э. около Донузлава // Советская археология. 1969. № 3. С. 151.
  16. Rosen В., Galili Е. Op. cit. Р. 6.
  17. Gale Brown H. Op. cit. Р. 32.
  18. Rosen В., Galili Е. Op. cit. Р. 5.
  19. Cousteau J. Y. Fish Men Discover a 2200-year-old Greek ships // National Geographic. 1954. Vol. 105(1), № 1–36. Р. 17.
  20. Hocker F. Op. cit. Р. 199–200.
  21. Steffy R. The Kyrenia Ship : An Interim Report on Its Hull Construction // American Journal of Archaeology. 1985. № 1. Р. 98.
  22. Hocker F. Op. cit. Р. 206.
  23. Weiss D., Shotyk W., Kempf O. Op. cit. Fig. 1.
  24. Parker A. J. Op. cit. Р. 330.
  25. Rosen В., Galili Е. Op. cit. Р. 2.
  26. Моррисон Дж., Уильямс Р. Греческие весельные корабли. История мореплавания и кораблестроения в Древней Греции. М. : Центрполиграф, 2014. С. 150.
  27. Rosen В., Galili Е. Op. cit. Р. 5.
Full text (in Russian):