Izvestiya of Saratov University.

History. International Relations

ISSN 1819-4907 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1913 (Online)


For citation:

Yablonskaya O. V. Emigration of British minors to Canada: Reasons for resettlement from Great Britain. Izvestiya of Saratov University. History. International Relations, 2023, vol. 23, iss. 1, pp. 45-52. DOI: 10.18500/1819-4907-2023-23-1-45-52, EDN: RRCCPQ

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).
Full text:
(downloads: 115)
Полный текст в формате PDF(En):
(downloads: 41)
Language: 
Russian
Article type: 
Article
UDC: 
325.2-053.2(410)|18/19|
EDN: 
RRCCPQ

Emigration of British minors to Canada: Reasons for resettlement from Great Britain

Autors: 
Yablonskaya Olga V., National Research Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Arzamas branch
Abstract: 

The article examines the circumstances of emigration of children from Great Britain in the XIX–ХХ centuries based on the material of the sources. It is proved that the resettlement was caused by the pauperization of the urban population in the conditions of industrialization. In Canada, minors could be adopted or work on farms, as servants, receiving maintenance and wages. The children had to go to school. It was a prerequisite. Children’s emigration made it possible to fill the labor shortage in Canada, help in the development of the British periphery, strengthen the ties of the metropolis and overseas possessions. Emigration was also the deportation of an overweight population and juvenile delinquents. The lack of proper supervision has led to child abuse and exploitation. The author concludes, that the majority of British migrant children have adapted to Canada, have been given the opportunity to self-actualize.

Reference: 
  1. Select Committee on Health. The Welfare of Former British Child Migrants. URL: https://publications.parliament. uk/pa/cm199798/cmselect/cmhealth/755/75504.htm (дата обращения: 07.02.2022).
  2. Australia ’sorry’ for child abuse // BBC News. 2009. November, 15. URL: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asiapacific/8361389.stm (дата обращения: 07.02.2022).
  3. Gordon Brown Apologises to Child Migrants Sent Abroad // BBC News. 2010. February, 24. URL: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8531664.stm (дата обращения: 07.02.2022).
  4. Bill 12, British Home Child Day Act, 2011. URL: https://www.ola.org/en/legislativebusiness/bills/parliament39/session-2/... (дата обращения: 07.02.2022).
  5. Harrison P. The Home Children: Their Personal Stories. Winnipeg : Watson & Dwyer, 1979. 276 p.
  6. Parr J. Labouring Children: British Immigrant Apprentices to Canada, 1869–1924. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1994. 181 р.
  7. Bagnell K. The Little Immigrants: The Orphans Who Came to Canada. Toronto : Macmillan of Canada, 1987. 271 p.  
  8. British Home Child Group International. URL: http:// britishhomechild.com/ (дата обращения: 09.05.2022).
  9. Demography of London. URL: https:// en.wikipedia. org / wiki / Demography _ of _ London (дата обращения: 15.11.2021).
  10. Bean Ph. Lost Children of the Empire. London : Unwin Hyman, 1989. 177 р.
  11. The Missing Link; Or, Bible-women in the Homes of the London Poor by L. N. R., 1810–1879. New York : R. Carter & Bros. 1861. 302 р.
  12. London, Thursday, April // The Times. 1857. April, 9.
  13. An Act for the Amendment and Better Administration to the Laws Relating to the Poor in England and Wales. 14 August 1834. P 15. URL: https://www.workhouses.org.uk/ poorlaws/1834act.shtml (дата обращения: 09.11.2021).
  14. Speeches of the Earl of Shaftesbury, K. G. Upon Subjects Having Relation Chiefly to the Claims and Interests of the Labouring Class. London : Chapman and Hall, 1868. 438 p.
  15. Davin A When is a Child Not a Child? // Politics of Everyday Life: Continuity and Change in Work and the Family / ed. by H. Corr, L. Jamieson. New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1990. 259 p.
  16. Huskar Colliery Disaste. URL: https://web.archive.org/ web/20110828122958/http://wwwcmhrccouk/cms/document/ 1820_39.pdf (дата обращения: 09.02.2022).
  17. Children’s Employment Commission. Second Report of the Commissioners: Trades and Manufactures. London : William Clowes and Sons, 1843. 268 p.
  18. The Factory and Workshop Acts, Comprising All the Laws Now in Force for the Regulation of Labour in Factories and Workshops: with Introduction, Explanatory Notes, Notes of the Decided Cases, &c, by G. J. Notcutt. London : Stevens and Sons, 1874. 329 p.
  19. Hutchins B. L. Robert Owen: Social Reformer. London : The Fabian Society, 1912. 24 p.
  20. Kohli M. The Golden Bridge: Young Immigrants to Canada, 1833–1939. Toronto : Natural Heritage Books, 2003. 462 p.
  21. Cruikshank G. The Drunkard’s Children. A Sequel to The Bottle. In Eight Plates. London : D. Bogue ; New York : J. Wiley and G. P. Putnam, 1848. 18 p.
  22. Cruikshank G. Our “Gutter Children”. London : W. Tweedie, 1869. 4 p.
  23. Cruikshank G. A Slice of Bread and Butter / сut by G. Cruikshank; being the Substance of a Speech Delivered at a Public Meeting, Held for the Benefit of the Jews’ and General Literary and Mechanics’ Institution. London : W. Tweedie, 1857. 16 p.
  24. Rye M. S. Our Gutter Children // The Times. 1869. March, 29.
  25. Rye M. S. Gutter Children // The Times. 1869. August, 25.
  26. Maconechy J. City Arabe // The Times. 1869. March, 31.
  27. C. J. R. Emigration of Pauper Children // The Times. 1869. March, 31.
  28. Rye M. S. Gutter Children // The Times. 1869. April, 20.
  29. Brenton E. P. The Bible and Spade; Or, Captain Brenton’s Account of the Children’s Friend Society, Etc. London : J. Nisbet & Company, 1837. 142 p.
  30. The Migrant Street Kids // Canberra Times. 1993, October.
  31. Hadley E. Natives in a Strange Land: The Philanthropic Discourse of Juvenile Emigration in Mid-Nineteenth-Century England // Victorian Studies. 1990. Vol. 33, № 3. Р 411–439.
  32. Police // The Times. 1839. April, 5.
  33. Children’s Friend Society // The Times. 1839. April, 5.
  34. Police // The Times. 1839. April, 9.
  35. Glynn D. Exporting Outcast London : Assisted Emigration to Canada, 1886–1914 // Histoire Sociale – Social History. 1982. Vol 15, № 29. P 209–238.
  36. Шишков В. В. Британская империя как национально-институциональная имперская система и её стратегии по отношению к перифериям // Социум и власть. 2014. № 3 (47). С 52–53.
  37. Rye M. S. To the Chairman of the Islington Board of Guardians // Charges made against Miss M. Rye: Before the Poor Law Board at Islington and Her Reply Thereto. 1874. URL: https://archive.org/details/cihm_07098 (дата обращения: 20.01.2022).
  38. Little Emigrants // The Times. 1869. October, 29.
  39. Miss Rye in Canada // The Times. 1869. December, 28.
  40. Grainger А. Charges Made Against Miss M. Rye: Before the Poor Law Board at Islington and her reply thereto. 1874. URL: https://archive.org/details/cihm_07098 (дата обращения: 20.03.2021).
  41. Emigration of Pauper Children to Canada. Report to the Right Honourable the President of the Local Government Board, by Andrew Doyle. 1875. URL: http://britishhomechild.com/the- doyle- report/ (дата обращения: 20.03.2021).
Received: 
19.06.2022
Accepted: 
10.11.2022
Published: 
01.03.2023
Short text (in English):
(downloads: 38)