Izvestiya of Saratov University.
ISSN 1819-4907 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1913 (Online)


Social Development Strategy in the Soviet Union in the Second Half of the 1950s – the Middle of the 1980s: Stages of Policy-making and Implementation Mechanisms

The article analyzes the policy-making process and implementation mechanisms of the social development strategy of the Soviet Union in 1953–1985. It claims that the main ideological components of the Soviet strategy of social development during the period concerned were fully established after the XXII Congress of the Communist Party, and show which role the institutions of the Communist party played in the policy-making and realization of the Soviet social development strategy.

Presidential diplomacy in Brazil: Achievements and drawbacks

The article deals with the history of the presidential diplomacy concept in Brazil, contribution of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and presidents to the creation of the foreign policy concept and to the enhancement of Brazil’s stance in the world. It is shown that in the XX century the Brazilian Foreign Ministry, which is known as Itamaraty, was the strongest body among other executive governmental structures. Its chancellors developed foreign policy strategy and its structural changes reflected Brazil’s priorities.