church

Religion and Soviet Society in the Works of American Observers of the 1930s

The article is devoted to the analysis of American observers’ views on the status of religion in the Soviet society in the 1930s. There were two different groups among them: engineers and workers who came to participate in the industrialization of the USSR, and professional journalists from the United States. Perceiving the socio-political processes that took place in our counrty often in different ways, the American observers agreed on one position.

London under the Tudors: Social Aspect (Based on the Wills)

The article is devoted to the study of the social aspect of the life of Tudor London. On the material of the wills the author shows that the majority of the testators are artisans, small traders and merchants of the «Twelve Great Livery Companies» of London. Also, there are representatives of the service sector, gentry and the emerging intelligentsia. Among the recipients of the inheritance numerous church institutions of the city are mentioned. Some wills belong to women: wives or widows of merchants and artisans.

Ordeals in Anglo-norman England

The article deals with ordeals («iudicium Dei») and their features after the Conquest compared with those of Anglo-Saxon age and contemporary continental practice. An introduction of the trial by battle, well-known in France, but unknown in England prior to 1066 is given. Meanwhile, common for pre-Conquest ordeal by hot iron was continued to be used with the help of the English Church, which controlled it. In addition it must be kept in mind that there are few real cases of ordeals known from sources, contradictory to the subsequent age of the Plantagenets.

Fighting church on the site in 1930: On the behavior of the Party and Soviet functionaries of the grass-roots level managers and ordinary believers

The article analyzes the relationship between the party and the grass-roots level Soviet functionaries and ordinary believers associated with the withdrawal from the church temples during the anti-religious campaign of the 1930s. Reconstructed model of behavior of participants of relations, explains the reasons for relatively easy win over the believers.