Izvestiya of Saratov University.
ISSN 1819-4907 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1913 (Online)


Spain and the Spaniards through the eyes of the Extraordinary British Ambassador Samuel Hoare (1940–1944)

Based on the materials of the memoirs of the participants of the events and the business correspondence of the embassy with the British government, the image of the Spanish people in the representations of the British ambassador to Spain – Samuel Hoare, who held the post from 1940 to 1944, is considered. The Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939 led to a crisis in many spheres of society. The author comes to the conclusion that the conflict within the state has led to a deep cultural split in Spanish society.

Spanish Republican Fleet in 1936 Сampaign

Productive forces placement in Spain in XX c. made the country dependent on the control of the basic naval communications bordering the aquatorium. Military revolt, which broke out in 1936, made the situation even worse. However, it gave the Republic the opportunity to achieve sea superiority. Several failures of the Republican fleet during the first months of the Civil War and government policy of Madrid led to the sea blockade.

The Spanish mission of Samuel Hoare (1940–1944)

Based onthematerials ofthememoirs ofthe participants ofthe events andthe business correspondence ofthe embassy withthe British government, the activities of the British ambassador to Spain, Samuel Hoare, who held the post from 1940 to 1944, are considered. It is shown that the effectiveness of his actions grew not only in simultaneously with the success of the allies in the war, but also due to the strengthening of economic cooperation between the two countries.


The article analyses the maintenance of neutrality by Spain as well as its partners belonging to opposing sides. The article touches upon the issues of alterations in the economic situation and consequences of the facilitation of Spanish international trade in WWI. The author focuses on the development of the country's foreign policy and the cases when Spain infracted the neutrality during 1914-1918

Spanish Women’s Manual of the 16th Century

The article deals with the Women’s Manual published in the 16th century in Spain. The Manual contains 145 recipes. The author of the article thinks that this receptary was intended for rich Spanish women and helped them to become proficient in the basics of cosmetology and medicine.

F. Franco. Prevarication (1943–1945)

The article deals with the foreign policy of Spain in the period of the Second World War. The author analyses the search of a special political way, which allowed Francisco Franco to prevent the participation in the war, retain the power and preserve the relative stability in the country. Special attention is paid to the development of relations between Francoist Spain with Germany, Italy, USA and Great Britain.

The Economical Consequences of African Migration to Spain

The article estimates the macroeconomic and microeconomic consequences of migration from Africa to Spain, as well as its impact on the labor market. It includes data on the impact of migration on GDP growth, inflation, wages, and employment of the indigenous population. It concludes that immigration has a positive impact on the using of resources and an overall increasing the economic efficiency.

Migration management case study: Spain and Morocco

The article analyzes the contradictions between the country of destination and origin of immigrants and defines the directions of cooperation between them to regulate migration processes. It considers the evolution of Spanish and Morocco immigration laws and the development of the bilateral relations to consolidate joint model to manage migration. It includes data of the intensity of the migration flows, their predominantly labor character and the dependence on the economic situation in the receiving country.

Francoist Spain in the context of the Second World War: Deeds and intentions

The article is devoted to two peripheral problems of international relations on the eve and during the Second World War. At this time Spain was trying to solve its territorial problems in North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. The author’s attention is focused on the activities of the caudillo F. Franco in solving these problems. Franco managed to strengthen the influence of Spain in Tangier, but was unable to return Gibraltar to his country.