Izvestiya of Saratov University.
ISSN 1819-4907 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1913 (Online)


Relations between the Livonian Order and the Archbishops of Riga in the context of the Reformation and the question of the political structure of Livonia

The article reveals the nature and features of the relationship between the Livonian Order and the Archbishops of Riga during the Livonian Reformation, in 1521–1558, and reveals their attitude towards the spread of Lutheranism, the influence of the reformation processes on the political life of Livonia. It also examines the legal, political and ideological reasons and prerequisites of the Livonian Master Wolter von Plettenberg historical choice.

The initial stage of ideological formation of Puritanism in the course of Reformation in England

The article deals with the origin of ideological prerequisites of Puritanism as a trend in the Church of England which appeared in the course of Reformation. The author traces penetration of Reformation ideas to England from European continent before the beginning of King’s Reformation by Henry VIII (1509–1547) in 1534 and shows the beginnings of English religious emigration on the Continent from 1520s which was formed by Englishmen who were adherents of continental Reformed churches.