Izvestiya of Saratov University.
ISSN 1819-4907 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1913 (Online)


Spain and the Spaniards through the eyes of the Extraordinary British Ambassador Samuel Hoare (1940–1944)

Based on the materials of the memoirs of the participants of the events and the business correspondence of the embassy with the British government, the image of the Spanish people in the representations of the British ambassador to Spain – Samuel Hoare, who held the post from 1940 to 1944, is considered. The Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939 led to a crisis in many spheres of society. The author comes to the conclusion that the conflict within the state has led to a deep cultural split in Spanish society.

The Spanish mission of Samuel Hoare (1940–1944)

Based onthematerials ofthememoirs ofthe participants ofthe events andthe business correspondence ofthe embassy withthe British government, the activities of the British ambassador to Spain, Samuel Hoare, who held the post from 1940 to 1944, are considered. It is shown that the effectiveness of his actions grew not only in simultaneously with the success of the allies in the war, but also due to the strengthening of economic cooperation between the two countries.

Use of Resources of the Caspian Sea through the Prism of Kazakhstan Interest in the 1990s and Early 2000s

The article explores the development of transport and logistics corridors of the Caspian region through the prism of Kazakhstan’s national interests and geopolitical competition between the leading actors. The author also analyzes the foreign policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, pointing to the fact that the country managed to maintain a balanced course and to be balanced with all players in the region.