World History

On the Reasons of Wide Spread of the Magdeburg City Law in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe

The article discusses the causes of the spread of the Magdeburg city law in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the 12th-18th centuries. It is concluded that at different stages of the historical development of some countries  and regions different factors which were determined by the peculiarities of their socio-economic and political systems were operating.

A New View of the World: «Byzantine Distortion» in «the Christian Topography» of Cosmas Indicopleustes

The article gives a detailed analysis of cosmological visions of Cosmas Indicopleustes, as reflected in his work «The Christian topography». In the context of the analysis of a new view of the world of Cosmas Indicopleustes the article reviews his visions about the shape of the Universe and the nature of flora and fauna of the countries that he had visited before he became a priest. The academic analysis of this article is based on the interpretation of «The Christian topography» that was carried over and also on the works of national and international researchers of the issue.

The Land Forces of Great Britain in the Middle of the 1930s: Problems of Modernization

Traditional views on the role of the army and difficult situation in the country in the 1920s and early 1930s largely contributed to stagnation of the British army. As a result, land forces did not meet the requirements of modern warfare. In response to changes in the European context, the Army General Staff developed a plan for “limited modernization,” but military issues remained in the shadow of Air Force and Navy.

The Problem of German Minority in the German-Yugoslavian Relations in 1920–1933

After ending of WWI the question about the position of national minorities in Europe became especially acute because of serious changes of the states’ borders. The article analyzes the problem of German minority in German-Yugoslavian relations of 1920–1933. Status of German population, its role in economical, political and cultural life SCS Kingdom (Yugoslavia) is examined. Special attention is devoted to defining Berlin’s and Belgrade’s positions about this problem and connection of these positions with strategic goals of the states.

«The Pamphlet War» and the Adoption of the Great Reform Act of 1832 in Great Britain

The Great reform Act (election law) of 1832 was one of the most significant internal political events in the United Kingdom of the 19th century. It initiated the group of serious transformations of the parliamentary system of the State. The article is based on the analysis of documentary sources (press and parliamentary debate). It shows the influence of British public opinion and the press on the process of the adoption of the parliamentary reform in 1830–1832. The struggle for reform showed the extreme polarization of political forces in the UK.

The Authority and Masonry in the Modern History: Confrontation or Union?

The article is devoted to the processes of interaction of regular Masonic Lodges and state institutions in the Modern History. The author emphasizes that the most active cooperation of power and Masonry developed at the turn of the 18th and the 19th centuries. Based on reading authentic sources and literature the author draws a conclusion about initial ab- sence of contradictions between the masons and the state.

Crime in London at the Beginning of the 14th Century

Some aspects of London`s criminality at the beginning of the XIV century are considered in this article based on the authentic material. The author reveals the factors which contributed to manifestation of crime as some kind of deviant behavior and presents classification of London`s crimes in 1305; the author also identifies social and professional composition of criminals and the types of punishments.

Gniezno and Poznan in the XIII Century

The article analyzes the process of rivalry between two largest cities in Greater Poland, Gniezno and Poznan in the XIII century. During the Middle Ages both cities were the key centers of development of the Greater Poland region. Until the XIII century, there are some reasons to talk about the leading position of Gniezno. However, as a result of a number of factors that paradoxically contributed to the strengthening of Gniezno, in the XIII century Poznan comes to the fore.

The Formation of the Image of a Saint King in the Scaldic Poetry of the 11th Сentury

The article deals with some aspects of making a figure of a Norwegian ruler Olaf Haraldsson a saint martyr. Scaldic poetry of the 11th century was taken as a basis for research. The works written after the death of saint Olaf at the battle of Stiklestad are of great interest. Due to the peculiarities of scaldic poetry one can assume that Olaf’s cult and consequently formation of his image started in 1031–1035. However these works are important not just as a proof of hagiographical tradition, but legitimization of royal power in Norway as well.

Японское «экономическое чудо»: сущность и подходы к пониманию

В статье анализируются причины уникальности так называемого «экономического чуда» 1955–1973 гг. в Японии и раскрывается сущность этого явления. Приводятся институциональный и структурный (на основе материалов о роли Министерства промышленности и торговли в структурной перестройке экономики Японии) подходы к пониманию японского «экономического чуда». Показаны изменения, произошедшие в жизни Японии и японцев. Проанализированы некоторые отечественные и зарубежные оценки японских экономических преобразований того времени.